Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is used to treat and prevent different diseases like Malaria; it can also be used for various other conditions like lupus,rheumatoid arthritis, and porphyria cutanea tarda. The drug is almost always taken by mouth in the form of hydroxychloroquine sulfate.
There are different brand names of hydroxychloroquine sulfate. They all refer to the same product, “hydroxychloroquine,” but the brand differs by each manufacturer. Common brand names include:
There are many more brand names, but these are the most common ones.
Chloroquine phosphate vs hydroxychloroquine sulfate
Chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate should not be confused. They are not the same drugs. Yet, both of them are derived from the same chemical molecule, known as quinoline. Also, both drugs are used as antimalarial medications, but hydroxychloroquine sulfate is used more often as an antirheumatic drug.
Their toxicity and therapeutic dosage are different. Nevertheless, they both share the same side effects and clinical indications. A common profound side effect due to them is retinopathy.
What is hydroxychloroquine sulfate used for?
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is used to treat various conditions. These conditions include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, porphyria cutanea tarda, Sjogren syndrome, and Malaria. Also, recently, some research studies claim that it is effective in SARS-CoV2 infection (the coronavirus). And if you want to purchase
Lupus is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system in a human becomes overactive and attacks the body. Symptoms of the disease vary depending on which tissue is being attacked. They can appear in different organs like joints, skin, kidneys, heart, and lungs.
In addition to being antimalarial, hydroxychloroquine sulfate possesses immunosuppressive effects. This is because it increases pH within intracellular vacuoles and alters processes such as assembly of macromolecules in the endosomes and posttranslational modifications of proteins in the Golgi apparatus.
Research studies found that these properties interfere with antigen processing in antigen-presenting cells like macrophages. Also, an alkaline cytoplasmic environment interferes with the regular assembly of alpha and beta chains of MHC class II. These effects together lead to diminished antigen presentation and CD4+ T cell activation.
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate for Malaria
The mechanism of action of hydroxychloroquine (and other quinolone drugs) as an antimalarial drug isn’t completely understood. However, here is the most likely true theory:
Inside red blood cells, the malarial parasite must break down hemoglobin to satisfy its need for amino acids, which create proteins for the parasite. Hemoglobin is composed of a heme unit (not used by the parasite) and a protein unit (used by the parasite). Because heme is toxic, malaria biocrystalizes heme to form a structure called hemozoin, which is non-toxic, to avoid toxicity from this molecule.
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is responsible for preventing the heme biocrystallization, leading to heme accumulation in the parasite. Heme is cytotoxic so that it will lead to the death of the parasite.
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate coronavirus
Some studies found that hydroxychloroquine sulfate is effective in killing the coronavirus in vitro. Also, many countries initially started using hydroxychloroquine to treat hospitalized cases with COVID-19 (March 2020). From April to June 2020, there was an emergency use authorization for hydroxychloroquine use in the United States.
On 24 April 2020, however, the FDA, citing the risk of abnormal heart rhythm problems, posted a caution against the use of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients outside the hospital setting or a clinical trial.
Finally, hydroxychloroquine use was withdrawn as a possible treatment for COVID-19 patients, as studies found that it adds NO BENEFIT for hospitalized severe COVID-19 and INEFFECTIVE drug for COVID-19.
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate products
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is available as tablets. It is almost always given orally. Don’t break, crush, or chew it. It would be best to take it with food to prevent stomach upset (always follow your doctor’s instructions). The length of administration and the dose vary depending on your condition.
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate 200 mg
The most commonly available form of hydroxychloroquine is hydroxychloroquine sulfate 200 mg. Nevertheless, the dose varies depending on the reason behind the administration.
To prevent Malaria in adults, 400 mg once a week on the same day of each week is recommended.
For the treatment of Malaria, four tablets (800 mg) are taken as a single dose. After this, it is recommended to take 400 mg 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after the first dose.
For treatment of lupus, it is recommended to take 200 up to 400 mg as a single dose but no more than 400 mg once a day.
(These doses are for ADULTS, not children)
Please note that dosing can be based on your weight as well. However, your weight-based dosing must be determined by your doctor.
Hydroxychloroquine manufacturer list
Who manufactures hydroxychloroquine sulfate
There are many hydroxychloroquine manufacturers across the globe. Hydroxychloroquine manufacturers list is endless, but here is a list of the critical players of hydroxychloroquine market:
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd
Amneal Pharmaceuticals Inc
Lupin, Laurus Labs Ltd
Appco Pharma LLC
Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd
Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Inc.
Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate cost
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate cost can vary by specific manufacturer and country.
Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg tablet
Quantity Per Unit Price
5 (5 x 10 each) $1.20 $60.07
100 $0.37 - $1.11 $37.22 - $110.64
500 $1.03 $515.20
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate cost
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate side effects
Short-term side effects
The most common short-term adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine are:
Low blood sugar
QT interval prolongation
There are some neuropsychiatric adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine. They include:
Long-term side effects
For prolonged use as in cases of lupus, side effects include:
Blisters in mouth
Altered eye pigmentation
The most severe side effect of hydroxychloroquine use is retinopathy. People who chronically take hydroxychloroquine are at high risk. Nevertheless, dosing 400 mg or less per day puts you at negligible risk. On the other hand, the risk increases if the patient takes it for over five years or has a cumulative dose that is higher than 1000 grams.
Where to buy bulk hydroxychloroquine sulfate
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